a cleaning agent that contains scouring agents
Acid Cleaner
an acid product commonly used to remove mineral buildup also referred to as a delimer
Aerobic Bacteria
bacteria that require oxygen to grow
Air Gap
an unobstructed open vertical space separating two plumbing fixtures that prevents contamination from the lower fixture to the higher one.
a substance with a pH above 7.0
bacteria that cannot grow in the presence of oxygen
the flow of non-potable water into a potable water supply caused b backpressure or backsiphonage
Biological Hazard
any living organisms or waste of living organisms that may contaminate food
Chemical Hazard
chemical substances that can contaminate food
the most commonly used and least expensive chemical sanitizer used in food establishments
Ciguatera Toxin
a naturally occurring toxin that accumulates in the tissue of certain kinds of predatory reef fish
Chemical Sanitizing
reducing the number of live microorganisms on a surface to safe levels by using chemicals to kill the microorganisms
the process of removing soil, dirt or debris from a surface
the presence of harmful substances or organisms in food
Corrective Action
action taken when a critical limit is violated in order to protect food safety
Critical Control Points
points during the cooking or processing of food where steps must be taken to eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce the hazard to an acceptable level
Critical Limit
a measurement or observation that separates what is acceptable from what is not acceptable
Cross Connection
a physical connection between a potable water system and a source of contamination
Cross Contact
the transfer of allergens from one food or surface to another
Cross Contamination
the transfer of pathogens from one food or surface to another
strong detergent that contains a grease-dissolving agent
cleaning agent that contains surfactants to help remove soil from surfaces when used with water
to prevent a person from working as an employee in a food establishment or entering a food establishment as an employee
Fat Tom
the acronym for the six factors that affect bacterial growth
an agency of the U.S. government that regulates the safety of food and drugs and is responsible for developing the Food Code
an acronym for first in, first out, describing proper stock rotation procedures of using older products first
Flow of Food
the path that food takes through a food establishment from receiving, storage, preparation, cooking, holding, service, cooling, and reheating
Food Allergens
foods that cause allergic reactions
Food Allergy
when the immune system reacts badly to a chemical contained in food
Food Code
a set of rules and requirements developed by the FDA to ensure food safety
Foodborne Illness
Any infection or illness that is transferred to people by the food they eat
Foodborne Illness Outbreak
the occurrence of two or more cases of similar illness resulting from the ingestion of a common food
Foodborne Infection
an illness caused by eating food containing live pathogenic organisms
Foodborne Intoxication
an illness caused by eating food containing a chemical hazard or toxin
a group of organisms which includes molds, yeasts, and mushrooms
refuse containing food matter and wet material
Gastrointestinal Illness
an illness that affects the digestive system (stomach and/or intestine)
a system of identifying hazards in the food produced, and implementing control measures to prevent or eliminate the hazard, or reducing it to an acceptable level
HACCP System
the actual work activities that take the HACCP plan and make it a working system in the organization
Hair Restraint
a hat, cap, net, clip, or other device used to cover or contain hair
Hand Antiseptic
a liquid lotion, or gel that contains antimicrobial agents that kill microorganisms on the surface of the skin
anything that may cause injury or illness if not controlled, reduced, or prevented
Hazard Analysis
the process of looking at the food and processes in the organization in order to find the potential hazards to food safety
Hepatitis A
a disease caused by a virus that can be transmitted through food by poor personal
hygiene practices or by contaminated water. The Hepatitis A virus causes jaundice and inflammation of the liver
High Temperature Sanitizing
reducing the number of live microorganisms on a surface to safe levels by using high temperatures to kill the microorganisms
Highly Susceptible Population
Young children, the elderly, Weakened Immune System
a person or animal on or in which a parasite lives
Ice Bath
a cooling method where pans containing hot food are partially submerged in ice water
Imminent Health Hazard
a risk to human health that is immediate and potentially quite severe
Immune System
the part of the body that helps to fight off disease and resist infection
Infected Lesion
a wound or injury such as a cut, scratch, boil, or open sore that contains pathogenic microorganisms
a chemical sanitizing compound that is effective at low concentrations and less corrosive and irritating than chlorine
a common symptom of liver diseases (such as Hepatitis A) where the skin and eyes appear yellow
tiny organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye
visible only with the aid of a microscope
Minimum Cooking Temperatures
minimum temperatures established by the FDA to kill common microorganisms contained in food
Modified Atmosphere Packaging
a packaging process where air is replaced with a combination of air and other gases, such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide
a type of fungi that spoils food and may have a fuzzy or slimy appearance
Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)
a chemical used as a flavor enhancer
preservatives used to keep freshness and are commonly used in meat and meat products
Non-potable water
water that is known to contain contaminants, such as pathogenic microorganisms or toxic chemicals, or water that has not been proven to be free of such contaminants
NSF International (NSF)
organization that develops sanitation standards for food equipment that meet the
requirements of the FDA Model Food Code and certifies equipment that meets those standards
a very small organism that survives by living in or on a host organism commonly found in seafood
Parts Per Million (ppm)
a unit of measurement for substances dissolved in a solution such as sanitizer dissolved into water
Microorganisms that can cause a disease
Person in Charge
the person present at a food establishment who is responsible for the operation at the time of inspection
Personal Hygiene
an individual’s general state of health, his hygienic practices and habits, and the cleanliness of his person and clothing
Pest Control Operator (PCO)
licensed or certified technician who provides pest management services
a measurement of the acidity or alkalinity of a substance
Physical Hazard
any foreign object that can contaminate food
Potable Water
water that is safe to drink
Quaternary Ammonium Compound
a chemical sanitizing product that is noncorrosive, nonirritating to skin, and is effective at most temperature and pH ranges
Ready To Eat Foods
foods that require no further preparation (washing or cooking) prior to consumption
Reduced Oxygen Packaging
any food packaging that has some or all the oxygen removed as part of the packaging process
any form of waste material, including trash, garbage, and recyclable materials
to prevent contamination by restricting an employee to jobs that do not involve working with food, food equipment, single use single service and linens
RTE (ready to eat)
products that are in a form that is edible without washing, cooking, or additional preparation by the food establishment or customer
Sanitizer Concentrations
Chlorine: 50-99 ppm; Iodine: 12.5-25 ppm Quat: 200 ppm. Always follow manufacturer’s recommended water temperatures
the process of reducing the number of live microorganisms on a surface to levels that are considered safe
Scombroid Poisoning
a type of foodborne intoxication that occurs when a person eats a type of scombroid fish that has not been kept proper temperatures
the inactive or dormant state of some types of bacteria in which it is protected from harsh environmental conditions but cannot reproduce
preservatives used to keep the freshness or color of foods
chemical agent in detergents that helps to penetrate and loosen soil on a surface
TCS Foods
foods that will support the growth of microorganisms or have previously been involved in foodborne illness outbreaks
Temperature Danger Zone
41° to 135°F where bacteria grow well
Toxin-Mediated Foodborne Infection
an illness caused by eating food containing live pathogenic organisms that reproduce within the intestines and produce a toxin
U.S. Department of Agriculture
an agency of the U.S. government that is responsible for the inspection of meats, poultry, dairy products, eggs, fruits, and vegetables
Vacuum Packaging
food packaging that has all the air removed before it is sealed so that the package contains no air until the user opens it
activities designed to make sure the organization is using the HACCP plan
the smallest form of microorganisms
Water Activity (Aω)
the amount of moisture available in a product
Water Hardness
the amount of dissolved minerals present in water
a type of fungi that spoils food by changing sugars to alcohol
Big Six Pathogens
the most common causes of foodborne illnesses. The Big Six is comprised of 4 bacteria and 2 viruses:
  • Shigella SPP
  • Salmonella Typhi
  • Nontyphoidal Salmonella
  • E-coli
  • Hepatitus A
  • Norovirus
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